10 Nursing Diagnosis related to Pneumoconiosis

Nursing Care Plan for Pneumoconiosis

Pneumoconiosis is a respiratory disease caused by particles (dust) that enter or settle in the lungs. Pneumoconiosis diseases of many kinds, depending on the type of particles (dust) entering or inhaled into the lungs. Some types of pneumoconiosis diseases that are often found in areas that have many industrial and technological activities, ie silicosis, asbestosis, Byssinosis, anthracosis and beriliosis.

Most pneumonia, can be through aspiration infectious particles. Infectious particles filtered in the nose, or caught and cleaned by mucus and ciliated epithelium in the airways. When a particle (virus / bacteria) can reach the lungs, the particles will be dealing with alveolar macrophages, and also with systemic immune mechanisms, and humoral.

By the time the body undergoes changes anatomical and physiological defense, then the infectious particles can reach the lungs, then spread and cause pneumonia. More than 40 minerals inhaled causes lung lesions and abnormalities of X-rays. Most, such as lead, barium and iron, are relatively harmless and accumulate in the lungs in the same way as coal, but do not produce a functional or morphological abnormalities. Asbestos dust into the body through a variety of ways. Among others, by vacuuming when breathing, swallowing saliva and phlegm together or consume food and drinks that contain a small number of fibers. Most fibers are ingested allegedly penetrate the intestinal wall, but subsequent migration in the body is unknown. After a long latency period, between 20-40 years, these fibers can cause cancer.

Nursing Diagnosis that may occur in patients Pneumoconiosis :

  1. Ineffective airway clearance related to the increased production of secretions or thick secretions.
  2. Anxiety related to difficulty breathing and fear Suffocation.
  3. Disturbed Sleep Pattern related to cough, inability to perform the supine position, the environmental stimuli.
  4. Imbalanced nutrition less than body requirements related to loss of appetite and nausea and vomiting.
  5. Impaired gas exchange related to airway obstruction.
  6. Risk for infection related to chronic disease processes.
  7. Chronic pain related to inflammation of the lung parenchyma.
  8. Knowledge deficit : the condition and the need for action related to misinterpretation.
  9. Activity intolerance related to imbalance between supply and oxygen demand.
  10. Risk for fluid volume deficit related to fever, sweating, vomiting.

Importance Check Blood Sugar in Diabetes

Importance Check Blood Sugar in Diabetes
Blood sugar levels is a major concern for people with diabetes. This disease is swirling blood sugar problems, very dangerous if too high, too low, too, if it can be dangerous too. Although the blood sugar levels are usually manifested in the clinical condition of patients with diabetes, but often do not realize until its effects are already happening complications.

Effects of high blood sugar levels that are too high are complications in organ damage in the body. Usually the damage is so permanent, so it is difficult to cure and life-threatening. This consideration which makes checking blood sugar levels should be done regularly. At least at the beginning of developing diabetes may be more frequent, but when it is stable, can be rarer. It is not recommended to check blood sugar levels when no clinical complaints, this is usually referred to as the complications and do not get used.

But sugar checks can also be used to monitor health, eg for diabetes prevention. This is of course for those who love to eat great food and sugary and high fat. This character is in accordance with the prospective people with diabetes. In most cases of diabetes is not detected its presence, know-know have no complaints, only discovered when exposed to diabetes. Though this could have been avoided if routine checks blood sugar levels.

Indeed, blood sugar levels are not absolute, it still must be compromised by a person's clinical condition. However, check your blood sugar could be a sort of alarm, of course, nothing wrong in diet and lifestyle and even this must be corrected. Similarly, in diabetics, by knowing the position of blood sugar levels, can regulate the diet, improve your diet and enhance your lifestyle.

Check fasting blood sugar levels

It is standard to check fasting blood sugar levels for diabetes patients. Although it could also have your own tools if a random glucose level can be known. However, fasting blood sugar levels is sufficient, usually easy to do in health services such as health centers. It can determine the condition of the blood sugar levels, so knowing what to do on a diet and daily activities.

Blood sugar levels that are known to be a picture of food intake and activity settings that should be changed or improved. In people with diabetes do have a balanced diet in a set pattern, so do not get too tight or too loose. Although the blood sugar levels could be compromised, but always have to be adjusted to the patient's clinical condition. Each person will be special, although it could have the same sugar content.

Check blood sugar levels in healthy current

There is often overlooked for people with diabetes, the blood sugar checks when there are complaints. And if there are complaints clearly there is something wrong in blood sugar levels. There are healthier ways of doing checks blood sugar levels, which is doing while being healthy, so they can do a control diet or activity effectively.

When a habit to check the blood sugar levels only when there is a complaint, it will create new problems in the future. At the moment there are complaints diabetics usually does have blood sugar levels that are not normal, could be too low or too high. It would be dangerous when it is a complication too far. Healing mechanisms will become more difficult. More difficult to control blood sugar levels in the body when the organs have been damaged.

In some cases people with diabetes, so easy to give in to the disease, and mostly because it has complications. When this condition is difficult to cure, even damage becomes more serious especially with emotional state becomes unstable. The feeling of pain or discomfort will worsen control of blood sugar levels, so here the importance of checking blood sugar levels regularly.

Nursing Care Plan for Hyperglycemia - Assessment and Diagnosis

Nursing Care Plan for Hyperglycemia
Hyperglycemia is a condition where there is an increase in plasma glucose levels in the blood. A condition called hyperglycemia is when blood glucose levels exceeded 180 mg / dL, but sometimes symptoms of hyperglycemia did not appear and was not detected even though the levels are already very high (270-360 mg / dL).

The following symptoms may be found in hyperglycaemia, where 3 of the first symptoms is a classic triad of symptoms of hyperglycemia:
  • Polyphagia (frequent hunger)
  • Polydipsia (frequently thirsty)
  • Polyuria (frequent urination)
  • Vision shaded
  • Weakness and feeling sleepy
  • Weight loss
  • Wounds difficult to heal
  • Dry mouth
  • Recurrent infections
  • Cardiac arrhythmias
  • Stupor
  • Commas

Nursing Assessment for Hyperglycemia

1 Activity / Rest
  • Symptoms: Weakness, fatigue, difficult to move / run. Muscle cramps, decreased muscle tone. Impaired sleep / rest.
  • Signs: tachycardia and tachypnea in the state of rest or with activity.

2 Circulation
  • Symptoms: A history of hypertension; Acute MI. Claudication, numbness, and tingling in the extremities.
  • Foot ulcers, healing old. 
  • Signs: Tachycardia. Postural changes in blood pressure; hypertension. Decreased pulse / no
  • Dysrhythmias. Crackles; DVJ (CHF). Skin hot, dry, and redness; sunken eyeballs.

3 Ego Integrity
  • Symptoms: Stress; dependent on others. Financial problems associated with the condition.
  • Signs: Anxiety, sensitive excitatory.
4 Elimination
  • Symptoms: Changes in the pattern of urination (polyuria), nocturia. Pain / burning, difficulty urinating (infection), the new UTI / repetitive. Abdominal tenderness. Diarrhea.
  • Signs: dilute urine, pale, yellow; polyuria (may progress to oliguria / anuria in case of severe hypovolemia).
  • Misty urine, foul smell (infection). Abdomen hard, the presence of ascites. Weak and decreased bowel sounds; hyperactive (diarrhea).
5. Food / Fluid
  • Symptoms: Loss of appetite. Nausea / vomiting. Do not follow the diet; increase in input glucose / carbohydrate. Weight loss over a period of several days / weeks. Thirsty. The use of diuretics (thiazides).
  • Signs: Dry skin / scaly, ugly tugor. Stiffness / abdominal distension, vomiting. Enlargement of the thyroid (increased metabolic demand with increased blood sugar). Odor halotosis / sweet, fruit odor (acetone breath).
6 Neurosensory
  • Symptoms: Dizziness / reel. Headaches. Tingling, numbness weakness in the muscles. Paresthesias.
  • Visual impairment. 
  • Signs: Disorientation; drowsiness, lethargy, stupor / coma (advanced stage). Memory impairment (new, past); mentally screwed. Deep tendon reflexes, decreased (coma). Seizure activity.

7 Pain / Leisure
  • Symptoms: Abdominal tension / pain (moderate / severe).
  • Signs: face grimacing with palpitations; looks to be very careful.
8 Respiratory
  • Symptoms: Feeling a lack of oxygen, cough with / without sputum purulent (depending on the presence of infection / no).
  • Signs: Hungry air. Cough, with / without purulent sputum (infection). Respiratory frequency.
9. Security
  • Symptoms: Dry skin, itching; skin ulcers.
  • Signs: fever, diaphoresis. Damaged skin, lesion / ulceration. Decreased general strength / range of motion.
  • Paresthesia / paralysis of muscles, including respiratory muscles (if potassium levels decreased with quite sharp).
10 Sexuality
  • Symptoms: vaginal discharge (likely an infection). Impotence problem in men; orgasm difficulties in women.

Nursing Diagnosis for for Hyperglycemia
  1. Deficient Fluid Volume
  2. Imbalanced Nutrition: Less Than Body requiremen.
  3. Risk for Infection.
  4. Risk for Disturbed Sensory Perception
  5. Fatigue
  6. Powerlessness
  7. Knowledge Deficit (learn) about the disease, prognosis, and treatment needs.

Gordon's Functional Health Patterns for Pleural Effusion

11 Gordon's Functional Health Patterns

1) Health Perception – Health Management Pattern
The presence of medical treatment and hospitalization affect change perceptions about health, but sometimes also led to wrong perception of health care. The possibility of a history of smoking, drinking alcohol and using drugs could be a factor predisposing disease.

2) Nutritional - Metabolic Pattern
In the assessment of nutritional and metabolic pattern, we need to take measurements of height and weight to determine the nutritional status of the patient, as well as the need to be asked eating and drinking habits before and during hospital admission, patients with pleural effusion will experience a decrease in appetite due to shortness of breath and an emphasis on abdominal structures. Increased metabolism will occur as a result of the disease process. patients with pleural effusion generally weak state.

3) Elimination Pattern
In the assessment of the pattern of elimination need to be asked about the illusion and defecation habits before and after hospital admission. Because the patient's general condition is weak, the patient will be much bed rest that will cause constipation, in addition to the structure of the abdomen due to gastrointestinal causes a decrease in the peristaltic muscles degestivus tract.

4) Activity - Exercise Pattern
Due to shortness of breath, tissue oxygenation needs to be less fulfilled and the patient will quickly experience fatigue on minimal exertion. Besides, patients will also reduce activity due to chest pain. And to meet the needs of patients ADL partly assisted by nurses and their families.

5) Sleep – Rest Pattern
The presence of chest pain, shortness of breath and an increase in body temperature will affect the fulfillment of the need for sleep and rest, other than that due to changes in the environmental conditions of a quiet home environment to the hospital setting, where many people are paced, noisy and others.

6) Role - Relationship Pattern
As a result of illness, the patient directly will change roles, eg a housewife patient, the patient can not perform the function as a mother who must care for their children, taking care of her husband. In addition, the patient's role in society is also changing and all that affects the patient's interpersonal relationships.

7) Self-perception - Self-concept Pattern
Patient's perception of the self will change. Patients who are otherwise healthy, a sudden onset of pain, shortness of breath, chest pain. Patients may be assumed that the disease is dangerous and deadly disease. In this case the patient may lose the positive image of the self.

8) Cognitive - Perceptual Pattern
Sensory function of patients did not change, as well as thought processes.

9) Sexuality - Reproductive Pattern
Sexual needs of the patient in this case sexual intercourse will be disturbed for a while because the patient is in the hospital and his physical condition is still weak.

10) Coping - Stress Tolerance Pattern
For patients who do not know the disease process may be experiencing stress and many patients will ask nurses and doctors who cared for him or those who might be considered more to know about the disease.

11) Value - Belief Pattern
As a religious patient will get closer to God.

Gordon's Functional Health Patterns for Pleural Effusion

Disturbed Sleep Pattern NCP for Pleural Effusion